The New York Times looks at the 50 anniversary of Independence of African states. The conclusion seems to be bitter-sweet experience from the individuals interviewed and covered.
DAKAR, Senegal — In a fancy resort on the French Riviera this week, limousines bearing African leaders gathered at the doorstep of France’s president for the France-Africa Summit, a time-honored ritual involving pledges of mutual love and, not surprisingly, some backbiting.
Unlike the glittering extravaganza on the Riviera, where extensive retinues accompanied the leaders, the anniversary — and its potential for taking stock — is passing largely unnoticed. Few official celebrations have been organized to mark the passing of five decades since France tentatively let go, albeit with many continuing ties, of 14 of its colonies; in all, 17 African countries, including Nigeria, gained independence in 1960.
Perhaps the most substantial collective commemoration is, paradoxically enough, not being held in Africa at all. Leaders from Senegal, Mali, Niger, Ivory Coast, Benin, Togo, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Mauritania, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Chad and Madagascar have all been invited to Paris to parade their troops along the Champs-Elysées on Bastille Day, the national holiday of their ex-colonial ruler.
Here on the continent, the few remembrances so far have at times been freighted with just as much ambiguity. In one of the rare, large-scale commemorative events, President Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal inaugurated a giant bronze statue meant to symbolize “African Renaissance” on a desolate hill near the airport here. Built by a North Korean company in pure Soviet-realism style, it is 13 feet higher than the Statue of Liberty and its three gigantic figures — man, woman and child — tower over their surroundings.
But nearly everything about it has provoked controversy, rather than the outpouring of pan-African pride that Mr. Wade had hoped to generate: from the cost, in a country that ranks 166th on the United Nations’ Human Development Index of 182 nations; to the scantily clothed figures, in an overwhelmingly Muslim country (local imams raised a vigorous protest); to the questionable aesthetics of a monument that recalls Stalinist Russia rather than the distinctive Afro-Islamic culture of the Sahel. Some Senegalese debate whether the figures even look African.
Mr. Wade has said he simply traded state land, in exchange for building the statue, to the North Koreans, who then sold it at a profit; local and international media estimates have put the total cost at between $27 million and $70 million.
For some analysts here, the statue’s mixed signals symbolize this anniversary year’s uncertain meanings, calling it a monumental construction project conceded to foreigners and inaugurated in an April ceremony attended by heads of state like Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe and Laurent Gbagbo of Ivory Coast, both of whom have been the object of international scorn for their human rights records.
“The monumentality is somewhat misplaced,” said Ibrahima Thioub, a Senegalese historian who teaches at Cheikh Anta Diop University here. “Does Senegal have the resources to invest this kind of money?” Besides, he added, “Why concede the African Renaissance to Koreans? We’ve got some very good African sculptors right here.”
Elsewhere, commemorations have been sparse or marked primarily by back-and-forth visiting by dignitaries from neighboring countries, as was recently the case in Cameroon, rather than by public outpourings.
“It’s tough to mobilize people for celebrations, because the flowers of independence have faded,” Mr. Thioub said. “The last 50 years have not at all met the people’s hopes and expectations.”
Jean-François Bayart, a senior research fellow at the National Center for Scientific Research in Paris, noted that there had been major achievements since independence. West African cities, for example, have both grown tremendously and continued to feed themselves, a balancing act he suggested was unparalleled.
Still, there is a “malaise” in this anniversary year, he added. “The balance sheet of independence is not brilliant, and people speak of lost decades. It’s not as catastrophic as some say, but there are problems,” Mr. Bayart said.
The notion of independence itself — in a context of bad governance, economic inequality, poverty and dependence on foreign aid — has been called into question by some African intellectuals. “Our parents are still asking us when this independence is going to be over,” the narrator says mockingly in a recent satiric novel, “The Catapillas, Those Ungrateful Ones,” by the Ivory Coast writer Venance Konan, a bitter commentary from a country racked by civil war and government misdeeds.
Voices are regularly raised against the continued use of the African Franc, which is seen as a humiliating adjunct of European money. It carries a guarantee of a fixed rate against the Euro, but requires that the ex-colonies keep a substantial portion of their currency assets in the Paris treasury.
Then there is the reliance on heavy inflows of foreign aid, which equaled a quarter to nearly a third of government spending in countries like Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Mali in 2008, according to figures compiled by a World Bank economist, Mamadou Ndione. In Niger, a leading member of Parliament said that aid routinely accounted for over half of the budgets passed by himself and his colleagues.
Against the weakness of institutions like parliaments stand the voices of African intellectuals and other civil-society activists, who have mobilized throughout the region for reform. In Niger, there were mass protests last year against the rollback of democracy by the former president, Mamadou Tandja. In Guinea, demonstrators — and the violent suppression of them — ultimately led to the military junta’s transfer of power to civilian leadership this year.
Even here in Senegal, often considered exemplary because there has never been a coup, widely followed writers like Abdou Latif Coulibaly criticize Parliament as being nothing more than “an instrument in the service of the executive.” Democracy is held hostage by elites, he argues, and his books have been routinely banned from the major bookstores as a result.
Mr. Coulibaly lays some of the blame with his fellow citizens, and said in an interview several years ago with the French political science review Politique Africaine that they mistakenly “consider that power is a matter of essences, a heritage, something in the blood, that what is normal for a state is unlimited monarchy.”
After 50 years of trying to run their own show …. Africa is still beset by wars, ethnic conflict, genocide, economic stagnation, and exploitation by outside powers …. with the Chinese being the flavor of the month in this round. What is worse is that the situation is degrading further, and old age ethnic/tribal conflicts that have been in check since the colonial times are now causing (today) fissures in many countries. This lack of progress is depressing, and I suspect that with time this political/economic/social condition will only get worse if things aren’t changed especially the current old leaders who have stayed around beyond their out of office date.